Cysteine proteases are one of the most biologically important clusters of proteins involved in a variety of cellular pathways. They participate in multiple processes, among which there are immune invasion, parasite invasion, parasite egress, hydrolysis, extracellular matrix turnover, making them promising drug targets for various diseases (e.g., AIDS, cancer, cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases, thrombosis, respiratory disease, pancreatitis, and neurological disorders) [1-2].
Being divided into 14 superfamilies, they are structurally different, however, sharing a common mechanism of action. Their unique role in protein degradation determines a broad distribution of cysteine proteases. It also implies a variability of active sites, as a result of the target folding specificity. Cysteine proteases are often targeted with compounds containing electrophilic warheads (such as epoxides or vinyl sulfones) that specifically interact with catalytic residues in the active center to mimic the peptide substrates of the target enzyme. 
Life Chemicals has designed two dedicated Screening Sets of potential cysteine protease modulators to facilitate small-molecule high-throughput screening in cysteine protease-related drug discovery projects:
- Cysteine Protease Focused Library by 2D Similarity (3,700 compounds)
- Cysteine Protease Targeted Library by Receptor-based Virtual Screening (1,200 compounds)
The compound selection can be customized based on your requirements, cherry picking is available.
Please, contact us at firstname.lastname@example.org for any additional information and price quotations.
For a pre plated set based on this Screening Library, please explore our Pre-plated Focused Libraries.
Cysteine Protease Focused Library by 2D Similarity
In total, this Screening Set comprises almost 7,000 drug-like screening compounds with potential inhibitory activity against cysteine proteases (Fig. 1-2):
- Human rhinovirus A protease
- Cathepsin B
- Cathepsin K
- Cathepsin L
- Cathepsin S
- Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase isozyme L1
- Calpain 1
- Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase 1
- Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase 2
- Sentrin-specific protease 7
- Sentrin-specific protease 8
- Sentrin-specific protease 1
- Sentrin-specific protease 6
- Cysteine protease ATG4B
- Genome polyprotein
- Calpain 2
- Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase 14
- Dipeptidyl peptidase I
- Cathepsin L2
- Peptidase 1
- Hepatitis C virus polyprotein
- Calpain small subunit 1
- Probable ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase FAF-X
- Sortase A
- Cathepsin F
- Falcipain 2
- Cathepsin H
- Cysteine protease falcipain-3
- Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase 7
- Cysteine protease falcipain-2
- Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase 28
- Poliovirus type 1 polyprotein
- Trophozoite cysteine proteinase
- Cathepsin B-like cysteine protease
- Cysteine proteinase B
- Gamma-glutamyl hydrolase
- Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase 1/WD repeat-containing protein 48
- Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase 47
- Calpain 1/2
- Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase isozyme L3
- Falcipain 2B
- Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase 5
- Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase 13
- Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase 4
- Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase 8
- Cysteine proteinase falcipain-1
- Probable cathepsin C
- Sentrin-specific protease 2
- Cysteine proteinase 1
- Ubl carboxyl-terminal hydrolase 18
To design this Library, a 2D fingerprint similarity search method was used. A reference database of over 15,000 biologically active compounds from assays related to cysteine proteases was compiled using the data available from patents and literature publications. The Life Chemicals HTS Compound Collection was searched for small-molecule analogs of these reported cysteine proteinase inhibitors with experimentally determined activity using MDL public keys and the Tanimoto similarity more than 85 %. PAINS filters were not applied for this Library preparation, as they would remove a substantial part of both reference molecules and analogous screening compounds due to the nature of cysteine protease-targeted drugs. Reactive compounds were removed with in-house MedChem filters.
Figure 2. Compound analogues from the Cysteine Protease Focused Library, which are similar to known
Cysteine Protease Targeted Library by Receptor-based Virtual Screening
Cathepsin K (CatK) is one of the most potent proteases in the lysosomal cysteine protease family, with main function to mediate bone resorption. Currently, CatK is among the most attractive protease targets for anti-osteoporosis drug discovery and development. Moreover, cathepsins and other cysteine proteases may become good targets for major diseases such as arthritis, osteoporosis, AIDS, immune-related diseases, atherosclerosis, cancer, and for a wide variety of parasitic diseases such as malaria, amebiasis, chagas disease, leishmaniasis, or African sleeping sickness.
At Life Chemicals, we’ve designed a proprietary Screening Set over 1,200 drug-like screening compounds with potential cathepsin K inhibitory activity picked out by virtual molecular screening.
Molecules from a reference set of reported selective cathepsin K protease inhibitors and the Life Chemicals HTS Compound Collection were passed through in-house structural filters and then docked in the enzyme active site using the Glide from Schrödinger Suite, while the bound ligand has been extracted from the reference crystal structures. A set of constraints was defined to improve docking result quality.
- Method: high-throughput virtual screening (docking), molecular fitting
- X-Ray data used: 2ATO, 1NLJ, 1VSN, 1YK8
- Constraints: no
- Filters used: PAINS, toxic, reactive
- Number of compounds selected: 1200
Figure 3. Spatial structure binding site of the complex of Cathepsin K with lead docking molecule
- Turk B. Targeting proteases: successes, failures and future prospects. Nat Rev Drug Discov 5:785-799, 2006.
- Verma, S.; Dixit, R.; Pandey, K. C. Cysteine Proteases: Modes of Activation and Future Prospects as Pharmacological Targets. Front. Pharmacol., 25, 2016, 7 (APR), 107. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2016.00107.
- L. Kaysser. Built to bind: Biosynthetic strategies for the formation of small-molecule protease inhibitors. Nat. Prod. Rep., vol. 36, no. 12, pp. 1654–1686, 2019, doi: 10.1039/c8np00095f.
- Fournier J, Chen K, Mailyan AK, Jackson JJ, Buckman BO, Emayan K, Yuan S, Rajagopalan R, Misialek S, Adler M, Blaesse M, Griessner A, Zakarian A. Total Synthesis of Covalent Cysteine Protease Inhibitor N-Desmethyl Thalassospiramide C and Crystallographic Evidence for Its Mode of Action. Org Lett. 2019 Jan 18;21(2):508-512. doi: 10.1021/acs.orglett.8b03821.
- Costa TF, Lima AP. Natural cysteine protease inhibitors in protozoa: Fifteen years of the chagasin family. Biochimie. 2016 Mar;122:197-207. doi: 10.1016/j.biochi.2015.11.002.
- Rustgi S, Boex-Fontvieille E, Reinbothe C, von Wettstein D, Reinbothe S. The complex world of plant protease inhibitors: Insights into a Kunitz-type cysteine protease inhibitor of Arabidopsis thaliana. Commun Integr Biol. 2017 Dec 14;11(1):e1368599. doi: 10.1080/19420889.2017.1368599.
- Lee H, Shin EA, Lee JH, Ahn D, Kim CG, Kim JH, Kim SH. Caspase inhibitors: a review of recently patented compounds (2013-2015). Expert Opin Ther Pat. 2018 Jan;28(1):47-59. doi: 10.1080/13543776.2017.1378426.