The sequencing of the human genome has identified more than 400 putative ion channels, but only a fraction of these have been cloned and functionally tested. The widespread tissue distribution of ion channels, coupled with the plethora of physiological consequences of their opening and closing, makes ion channel targeted drug discovery highly compelling. Despite the fact that some important drugs are in clinical use today, however, many of the existing drugs are poorly selective and have significant toxicities or suboptimal efficacy , and, as a class, ion channels remain underexploited in drug discovery.
To overcome this gap, an original Ion Channel Targeted Library of over 5,500 potential ion channel blockers was designed by means of a receptor-based approach, with its compounds being carefully selected from our proprietaryHTS Compound Collection.
The compound selection can be customized based on your requirements, cherry picking is available.
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X-ray data for ten human ion channel targets (complexed with small-molecule ion channel modulators) available from the Protein Data Bank were employed:
- Glutamate receptor ionotropic, kainate 1 (GRIK1)
- Annexin V
- Potassium channel subfamily K member 10
- Small conductance calcium-activated potassium channel protein 2 (SK2)
- Glycine receptor subunit alpha-3
- Glutamate receptor ionotropic, NMDA 2A (GRIN2A)
- Glutamate receptor 2 (GluR2)
- Ionotropic glutamate receptor GluR5
- Excitatory amino acid transporter 1 (EAAT1)
- Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)
For each of these complexes, a receptor-based pharmacophore model has been built with various “features” describing the binding mode: H-bond donor, H-bond acceptor, aromatic ring, hydrophobic group, positive or negative charge (Fig. 1). Each model contained “excluded volumes,” simulating the atoms of the binding site surrounding the ligand and, thus, preventing compounds from being placed in these space points during the virtual screening.
Next, the Life Chemicals HTS Compound Collection has been screened against each pharmacophore model with pre-generated conformers (up to 50 conformers for each compound) (Fig. 2-3). Resulting potential ion channel modifiers were filtered by the Rule of Five, PAINS, and in-house MedChem filters to remove molecules with "bad" and reactive groups.
Drug-like screening compounds targeting ion channels that showed the best fit against corresponding pharmacophore models were selected for this screening set. Information on the corresponding target and the pharmacophore “fitness” score is provided.
Fig. 1. A pharmacophore model based on Glycine receptor subunit alpha-3 bound to AM-3607. Excluding volumes simulating the receptor atoms are shown as blue-green spheres. Excluding volumes simulating the receptor atoms are shown as blue-green spheres.
Fig. 2. An example of Life Chemicals compounds matching the SK2 ion channel pharmacophore model. Excluding volumes simulating the receptor atoms are shown as blue-green spheres.
Fig. 3. An example from Life Chemicals compounds matching the Annexin V pharmacophore model. Excluding volumes simulating the receptor atoms are shown as blue-green spheres.
- Bagal SK, Brown AD, Cox PJ, Omoto K, Owen RM, Pryde DC, Sidders B, Skerratt SE, Stevens EB, Storer RI, Swain NA. Ion channels as therapeutic targets: a drug discovery perspective. J Med Chem. 2013, 56(3), 593-624.