The term “agrichemical” (or “agrochemical”) usually refers to a broad range of pesticides, including insecticides, herbicides, fungicides and nematicides. It may also include synthetic fertilizers, hormones and other chemical growth agents.
Several libraries of agrochemical-like compounds were created by assessing physicochemical properties and structural features of the Life Chemicals HTS Compound Collection. At the first stage the following restrictions were applied:
- 250 < MW < 500
- 0.3 < ClogP < 4.5
- HBD ≤ 2
- HBA < 10
- RotB < 11
Then, compounds were picked out by similarity search (Tanimoto method with 80 % cut-off) against the reference set of known agrochemical compounds (www.pesticideinfo.org). In addition, a substructure search was also applied. Substructural cores of each class of agrochemical compounds (fungicides, insecticides, herbicides, microbiocides) were selected from the literature [1–18] and on-line databases. Selection of compounds that belong to the corresponding chemical classes was performed with SYBYL-X and MDL ISIS software packages.
Presented below is a list of agrochemical-like compound sets designed by Life Chemicals and as well as corresponding chemical classes they comprise:
Insecticides (1,800 in-stock compounds)
- Alkyl phthalates
- Chloronicotinyl compounds
- N-Methyl carbamates
- Organochlorine compounds (oligochlorinated)
- Organophosphorus compounds
- Chlorinated pyrazoles
Microbiocides (1,900 in-stock compounds)
- Chlorinated phenols
- Quaternary ammonium compounds
Herbicides (7,700 in-stock compounds)
- Benzoic acids, chlorine substituted
- Benzoyl urea, chlorine substituted
- Bipyridilium compounds
- Chlorophenoxy acids/esters
- N-phenyl, N'-alkyl substituted ureas
- N-alkyl, N'-thiadiazole substituted ureas
Fungicides (1,000 in-stock compounds)
- Chlorinated benzenes
- C. Lamberth, S. Jeanmart, T. Luksch, A. Plant, Current challenges and trends in the discovery of agrochemicals, Science, 2013, Vol. 341, pp. 742–746.
- O. Ort, in Modern Crop Protection Compounds, W. Krämer, U. Schirmer, P. Jeschke, M. Witschel, Eds. (Wiley- VCH, Weinheim, Germany, 2012), pp. 50–88.
- M. A. Hanagan, R. J. Pasteris, R. Shapiro, Y. Henry, B. Klyashchitsky, paper presented at the 242nd American Chemical Society (ACS) National Meeting, Denver, CO, 28 August to 1 September 2011, abstr. no. AGRO-79.
- T. Pitterna et al., Bioorg. Med. Chem. 17, 4085–4095 (2009).
- A. Plant, Agrow Silver Jubilee Issue, XI–XV (2010).
- R. M. Hollingworth, in Agrochemical Discovery, D. R. Baker, N. K. Umetsu, Eds. (American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, 2001), pp. 238–255.
- C. L. Cantrell, F. E. Dayan, S. O. Duke, J. Nat. Prod. 75, 1231–1242 (2012).
- F. E. Dayan, C. L. Cantrell, S. O. Duke, Bioorg. Med. Chem. 17, 4022–4034 (2009).
- C. Lamberth, Nachr. Chem. 55, 130–134 (2007).
- S. D. Lindell, L. C. Pattenden, J. Shannon, Bioorg. Med. Chem. 17, 4035–4046 (2009).
- L. Zirngibl, Antifungal Azoles (Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany, 1998).
- K.-J. Schleifer, in Pesticide Chemistry, H. Ohkawa, H. Miyagawa, P. W. Lee, Eds. (Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany, 2007), pp. 77–88.
- C. M. Tice, Pest Manag. Sci. 57, 3–16 (2001).
- C. M. Tice, Pest Manag. Sci. 58, 219–233 (2002).
- C. Lamberth, J. Dinges, in Bioactive Heterocyclic Compound Classes - Agrochemicals, C. Lamberth, J. Dinges, Eds. (Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany, 2012), pp. 3–20.
- P. Jeschke, in Modern Methods in Crop Protection Research, P. Jeschke, W. Krämer, U. Schirmer, M. Witschel, Eds. (Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany, 2012), pp. 73–128.G.
- Theodoridis, in Fluorine and the Environment – Agrochemicals, Archaeology, Green Chemistry and Water, A. Tressaud, Ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2006), pp. 121–175.
- M. López-Ramos, F. Perruccio, J. Chem. Inf. Model. 50, 801–814 (2010).